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一周国际报告--7月24日

作者:佚名来源:加裕种猪公司时间:2017-07-31 13:26点击:

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2017年8月俄罗斯市场报告

Simon Grey – 俄罗斯、独联体和欧洲区总经理

Russia Market Report August 2017

Simon Grey - General Manager, Russia CIS and Europe! 

俄罗斯的猪价继续保持着每公斤活重116卢布(1.93美元)的高位。对高效生产商来说,每头猪的利润最高可达100美元!

The pig Price in Russia continues to remain high at 116 Roubles ($1.93) per live kg. High profits of up to $100 per pig for effective producers continue! 

在生猪生产中,只有3个利润的驱动因素。他们是:

In pig production, there are only 3 drivers of profit. They are;

1. 农场总出栏重,年每平方米出栏重,或者一个母猪场每年每个产床断奶仔猪数!

2. 这些出栏重的售价是多少?

3. 这些生猪出栏重量的生产成本!

1, Total kg sold from the farm, kg / m2 / year or pigs weaned per farrowing crate per year for a sow farm!

2, How much those kg are sold for!

3, The cost of production of those kg!

还有很多其他的因素,包括总产活仔数,每头母猪年提供生猪数,母猪年产胎次,死亡率,生长速度,饲料转换比率,屠宰百分率和背膘厚。这些因素都不能说明企业的情况,只能说明猪的情况!利用这些数据,尤其是他们自己的数据,是非常危险的。尽管如此,许多生产者还是基于产活仔数或是“最瘦的猪”来选择他们的种猪基因。

There are many many many other factors that are talked about, these include total born alive, pigs per sow per year, litters per sow per year, mortality, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, killing out % and backfat. None of these factors tell you how the business is doing only what the pigs are doing! Using these figures, especially on their own is very dangerous. Despite this many producers still chose their genetics based upon number born alive or the ‘leanest pig’. 

当你使用这些数字时,会变得更加混乱。要计算每头母猪年出栏生猪数量,首先你需要了解什么是母猪。在不同国家之间,甚至在国家内部,关于什么是母猪有许多不同的定义。

When you get to these numbers it gets even more confusing. To calculate pigs sold per sow per year you first need to understand what a sow is. There are many different definitions as to what a sow is between countries and even within countries.

让我们看看这是如何影响每头母猪年出栏生猪数量的。如果我们将一头母猪的标准定义为经产母猪和配种的后备母猪。如果一个农场有1000头母猪和配种后备母猪,年出栏3万头生猪。

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在同一农场,用不同的母猪定义,计算的母猪年出栏生猪数的差异是28.63到35.78头!这对同一个农场,甚至是同一头母猪来说都是十分大的差异。

Using different definitions of a sow from around, on the same farm, the difference in Pigs Sold per Sow per year is 28.63 to 35.78! Quite a difference for the same farm or even the same sow!

另一个被认为是关键因素的是FCR(饲料转化率)。就其本身来说,它只告诉我们一只猪每吃1公斤的饲料有多少增重。假设世界上所有的猪都吃同样的饲料(显然是不可能的),那么作为一个数字,它将会有一些用处。重要的是增重过程中每公斤饲料的成本。对于这个数字,您必须知道每公斤饲料的饲料转化率和饲料成本!

Another factor considered to be a critical one is FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio). On its own as a number it tells us only how much feed a pig has consumed per 1kg of gain. Assuming all pigs in the world were fed on the same food (obviously impossible) then on its own as a number it would have some use. The number that is important is cost of food per 1kg of gain. For this number, you have to know both FCR and feed cost per kg of feed!

第二,FCR受生猪出栏体重的影响。我们知道,猪的体重越大,饲料转化率越低。下表展示了这种影响

Secondly FCR is affected by the weight pigs are sold. We know that as pigs get heavier their FCR gets worse. The following table shows this effect

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对同一头猪来说,2.65的饲料转化率在110公斤的时候被屠宰,就相当于2.78的饲料转化率在130公斤的时候被屠宰!

For the same pig, a 2.65 FCR if it was killed at 110kg is exactly the same as a 2.78 FCR if killed at 130kg!

在俄罗斯,许多农场使用另一种计算方法。死猪的重量被用作增重的一部分(饲料转化率=饲料使用量/总增重)。运算养猪场数据的目的是为了了解我们销售的生猪的成本。我们不销售死猪!使用死猪的增重减少了实际的饲料转化率,并给出了错误的图示。FCR实际上是非常快速和容易测量的。总增重=一个猪群的最终重量-开始重量。使用的总食物是总饲料。用一个值除以另一个值,就得到了FCR。每天的饲料使用和计算每日饲喂量,然后称量死猪重量,需要更长的时间(大量的管理),并且在最后得出一个不那么精确的结果!

In Russia, many farms use another calculation. The weight of dead pigs is used as part of the gain (FCR = Feed used / total gain). The purpose of doing calculations on a pig farm is to understand the cost of what we sell. We do not sell dead pigs! Using the gain from dead pigs reduces the real FCR and gives a false picture. FCR is actually very quick and easy to measure. Total gain = end weight – start weight for a group of pigs. Total food used is total feed used. Divide one by the other and you have FCR. Daily feed used and calculating feed days and then weighing dead pigs takes longer (lots of administration) and gives you a less accurate calculation at the end of it! 

一个很少被提到的指标是每头断奶仔猪对应的母猪采食量。我访问过很多农场,他们的这个数字超过了每头仔猪50公斤,甚至高达56公斤。访问加拿大的农场时,我看到的值是40公斤或以下!

A figure rarely talked about is kg of sow food used per weaned piglet. I visit many farms where this figure is over 50kg per piglet, even as high as 56kg. Visiting farms in Canada I see figures of 40kg or below! 

每公斤14卢布的母猪饲料,饲喂16kg等于是每头断奶仔猪的额外饲料成本224卢布(约合3.77美元)。假设你要花30美元购买一头F1代后备母猪,然后生产56头断奶仔猪,那么每头断奶仔猪的基因成本是0.53美元!

16kg of sow food at 14 Roubles per kg is 224 Roubles ($3.77) per pig extra cost of food per weaned piglet. Assuming you are paying $30 royalty for an F1 gilt that then produces 56 weaned pigs then genetic cost is $0.53 per weaned piglet!

最后一个被很多人认为是关键的值是死亡率。计算死亡率的标准(正确的)方法是猪转入一个系统的百分比。例如,一个保育舍中每周有1000头猪转入,每周有22头猪死亡,其死亡率为2.2%。一些公司使用死亡头数比上库存来计算死亡率。一个8周次的保育舍,每周有1000头猪转入,存栏为8000头。22头死亡比上存栏死亡率等于0.275%(同样的农场基于不同的计算方法得出的数据非常不同)。

The last figure seen as critical by many is mortality. The standard (correct) way to calculate mortality is as a % of pigs moved into a system. For example, a Nursery that has 1000 pigs moved in per week with 22 pigs dying per week has a mortality of 2.2%. Some companies use the number died Vs inventory to measure mortality. An 8-week nursery with 1000 pigs per week has an inventory of 8000 pigs. 22 dead pigs vs inventory is a mortality of 0.275% (same farm very different figures based upon how it is calculated)

即使是死亡率的成本计算方式也会被混淆。在哺乳阶段死亡的仔猪实际上没有什么成本。除了处理费用可能是直接的成本,没有其他的直接成本。当然,如果它能活下来的话,它本可以出栏的。这是一个机会,但不是成本!

Even the way mortality is costed can confuse. A piglet that dies in farrowing has actually cost nothing. There are no direct costs, other than maybe a direct cost of disposal. Yes of course if it had lived it could have been sold. This is an opportunity, but not a cost!

如果每头母猪年提供的产活仔数或断奶仔猪数是养猪生产中最经济的因素,那么丹麦的生产成本将是目前最低的。实际情况是

If pigs born alive or weaned per sow per year was the most economic factor in pig production, then the Danes would have the lowest cost of production by far. The reality

图1-生产成本比较(欧元/公斤生猪胴体重量),在选定的欧盟和非欧盟国家中划分为成本类别。

Figure 1 - Cost of production compared (

责任编辑:宋美丽  

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