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作者:佚名来源:加裕种猪公司时间:2017-07-31 13:26点击:



Simon Grey – 俄罗斯、独联体和欧洲区总经理

Russia Market Report August 2017

Simon Grey - General Manager, Russia CIS and Europe! 


The pig Price in Russia continues to remain high at 116 Roubles ($1.93) per live kg. High profits of up to $100 per pig for effective producers continue! 


In pig production, there are only 3 drivers of profit. They are;

1. 农场总出栏重,年每平方米出栏重,或者一个母猪场每年每个产床断奶仔猪数!

2. 这些出栏重的售价是多少?

3. 这些生猪出栏重量的生产成本!

1, Total kg sold from the farm, kg / m2 / year or pigs weaned per farrowing crate per year for a sow farm!

2, How much those kg are sold for!

3, The cost of production of those kg!


There are many many many other factors that are talked about, these include total born alive, pigs per sow per year, litters per sow per year, mortality, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, killing out % and backfat. None of these factors tell you how the business is doing only what the pigs are doing! Using these figures, especially on their own is very dangerous. Despite this many producers still chose their genetics based upon number born alive or the ‘leanest pig’. 


When you get to these numbers it gets even more confusing. To calculate pigs sold per sow per year you first need to understand what a sow is. There are many different definitions as to what a sow is between countries and even within countries.




Using different definitions of a sow from around, on the same farm, the difference in Pigs Sold per Sow per year is 28.63 to 35.78! Quite a difference for the same farm or even the same sow!


Another factor considered to be a critical one is FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio). On its own as a number it tells us only how much feed a pig has consumed per 1kg of gain. Assuming all pigs in the world were fed on the same food (obviously impossible) then on its own as a number it would have some use. The number that is important is cost of food per 1kg of gain. For this number, you have to know both FCR and feed cost per kg of feed!


Secondly FCR is affected by the weight pigs are sold. We know that as pigs get heavier their FCR gets worse. The following table shows this effect



For the same pig, a 2.65 FCR if it was killed at 110kg is exactly the same as a 2.78 FCR if killed at 130kg!


In Russia, many farms use another calculation. The weight of dead pigs is used as part of the gain (FCR = Feed used / total gain). The purpose of doing calculations on a pig farm is to understand the cost of what we sell. We do not sell dead pigs! Using the gain from dead pigs reduces the real FCR and gives a false picture. FCR is actually very quick and easy to measure. Total gain = end weight – start weight for a group of pigs. Total food used is total feed used. Divide one by the other and you have FCR. Daily feed used and calculating feed days and then weighing dead pigs takes longer (lots of administration) and gives you a less accurate calculation at the end of it! 


A figure rarely talked about is kg of sow food used per weaned piglet. I visit many farms where this figure is over 50kg per piglet, even as high as 56kg. Visiting farms in Canada I see figures of 40kg or below! 


16kg of sow food at 14 Roubles per kg is 224 Roubles ($3.77) per pig extra cost of food per weaned piglet. Assuming you are paying $30 royalty for an F1 gilt that then produces 56 weaned pigs then genetic cost is $0.53 per weaned piglet!


The last figure seen as critical by many is mortality. The standard (correct) way to calculate mortality is as a % of pigs moved into a system. For example, a Nursery that has 1000 pigs moved in per week with 22 pigs dying per week has a mortality of 2.2%. Some companies use the number died Vs inventory to measure mortality. An 8-week nursery with 1000 pigs per week has an inventory of 8000 pigs. 22 dead pigs vs inventory is a mortality of 0.275% (same farm very different figures based upon how it is calculated)


Even the way mortality is costed can confuse. A piglet that dies in farrowing has actually cost nothing. There are no direct costs, other than maybe a direct cost of disposal. Yes of course if it had lived it could have been sold. This is an opportunity, but not a cost!


If pigs born alive or weaned per sow per year was the most economic factor in pig production, then the Danes would have the lowest cost of production by far. The reality


Figure 1 - Cost of production compared (